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Polymeric films, monolayers and blends

The nanoIR2-FS provides unrivalled nanoscale FTIR spectroscopy, chemical and material property mapping capabilities, providing true, model free nanoscale FTIR spectra for a wide range of polymers.
Applications include:
• Polymer blends
• Polymeric multilayer films
• Nanocomposites
• Bio-polymers, nanofibers
• Polymeric thin films and interfaces
• Particles, defects and contaminants
The integration of Atomic Force Microscopy capabilities uniquely provides correlation of nano FTIR spectra and chemical imaging with AFM based topography, nano-mechanical and nano-thermal material property mapping.
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Block Copolymers
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Tapping AFM-IR provides high resolution chemical imaging of PS/PMMA co-polymer at 1730cm-1 and 1492cm-1. The images are combined to show chemical contrast.
copolymer-with-line-b Tapping AFM-IR demonstrates sub 10 nm imaging resolution on block co-polymer substrate of PS/PMMA, as shown in cross-section.


Polymer blend
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AFM-IR spectra (left) and morphology (right) of a polymer blend across a rubber/nylon interface, demonstrating the high chemical spatial resolution of AFM-IR.

Polymer blend: sulfur containing poly(arylene)
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AFM-IR Spectra & IR chemical mapping at multiple wavenumbers of a sulfur-polyarylene blend. Correlated topography and nano-mechanical property mapping are shown.



Polymeric multilayer film
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The correlation of AFM-IR to transmission FTIR allows unambiguous identification of sub-micron layers in multilayer films. Above: AFM-IR point series spectra of a multilayer film with corresponding topography image.

Nanocomposites


AFM-IR absorption spectra and imaging of SiO2 nanoparticles in polypropylene showing aggregation of the SiO2 and non-uniform distribution. Sample courtesy of IPF Dresden.




IR spectra and imaging of SiO2 nanoparticles in polypropylene, showing aggregation of the SiO2 and non-uniform distribution. Image courtesy of IPF Dresden.



Interface analysis of composites
nanoIR2 measurements on a carbon fiber-epoxy composite revealing variations in chemical composition across the fiber/epoxy interface. This measurement was performed on a polished bulk sample.

nanoIR measurements on a carbon fiber-epoxy composite, revealing variations in chemical composition across the fiber/epoxy interface.

Polymer nano fibers
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Kevlar fiber
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AFM-IR spectra (left) of a single microfilament (~1.3 µm) of a kevlar fiber.

Nanoscale molecular orientation


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AFM-IR spectra on electrospun PVDF fibers under two different IR polarizations (R) IR absorption image at 1404 cm-1 of crossed PVDF fibers under polarized illumination (polarization direction shown by arrow)



Polymer degradation/failure
AFM-IR absorption spectra reveal evidence of localized nanoscale oxidation at failure point in polyurethane tubing.

AFM-IR absorption spectra reveal evidence of localized nanoscale oxidation caused by environmental stress cracking in a polyurethane insulation for a pacemaker lead.

Thin polymer films
The resonance enhanced mode enables high quality measurements on very thin films. A 20 nm film on PMMA taken by the nanoIR

Resonance enhanced AFM-IR enables high quality measurements on very thin films. Above: A 20 nm film on PMMA with AFM-IR spectra (right).



Polymer interfaces
AFM-IR spectra (left) and AFM image (center) of the interface between polyethylene and polyamide. At the interface there is a shift in the CH stretch peak position and width indicating a difference in the molecular orientation.

AFM-IR spectra (left) and AFM image (center) of the interface between polyethylene and polyamide. At the interface, a shift in the CH stretch peak position and width is seen, indicating a difference in the molecular orientation.

Biorenewable polymer
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IR spectra of locally heat treated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) reveal variations in crystalline/amorphous content (C-O-C stretches, 1270 cm-1)



Nano-mechanical property mapping of polymer blends
 Height (L) and Lorentz Contact Resonance images (center and right) of a blend of polystyrene (PS) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). The LCR images were obtained at two different contact resonance frequencies corresponding to strong resonances of the PS (center) and LDPE (right). The Lorentz Contact Resonance technique makes it simple to perform component selective imaging in polymer blends.

Lorentz Contact Resonance (LCR) simplifies component selective imaging in polymer blends. Above: Height (left) and LCR images (center, right) of a blend of polystyrene (PS) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). The LCR images were obtained at two different contact resonance frequencies corresponding to strong resonances of the PS (center) and LDPE (right).

Nanoscale thermal analysis of polymer blends

Nanothermal analysis (L) and Lorentz Contact Resonance image (R) on a multilayer film. The LCR image clearly separates discriminates the polymer layers such that local glass transition temperatures can be measured on specific layers.




Nanothermal analysis (L) and Lorentz Contact Resonance image (R) on a multilayer film. The LCR image clearly discriminates the polymer layers such that local glass transition temperatures can be measured on specific layers.



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